King Arthur Pages
Marriage to Guinevere
in the 5th Century CE
402 Events on the continent force Stilicho to recall
one of the two British legions to assist with the defense of
403 Victricius, Bishop of
over the Pelagian heresy.
405 The British troops, which had been recalled to assist Stilicho, do not return to Britain as they have to stay in Italy to fight off another, deeper penetration by the barbarian chieftain,Radagaisus.
406 In early January, 406, a combined barbarian force (Suevi,
Alans, Vandals & Burgundians) sweep into central
407 In place of the assassinated Marcus, Gratian is elevated "to the purple," but lasts only four months. Constantine III is hailed as the new
emperor by Roman garrison in Britian. He proceeds to
follow the example of Magnus Maximus by withdrawing the remaining Roman legion,
408 With both Roman legions withdrawn, Britain endures devastating attacks by the Picts, Scots and Saxons.
409 Prosper, in his chronicle, says, "in the fifteenth year of Honorius and Arcadius (409), on account of the languishing state of the Romans, the strength of the Britons was brought to a desperate pass."
Under enormous pressure, Britons take matters into their own hands, expelling weak Roman
officials and fighting for themselves.
413 Pelagian heresy said to have begun, by Prosper
420 – 30 Pelagian heresy is outlawed in
support Roman church. During this time, according to
421 Honorius issues a decree forbidding any Pelagians
to come nearer to
429 At the request of Palladius, a British deacon, Pope
Celestine I dispatches bishops Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of
c. 432 Traditional dating for the beginning of St.
Patrick's mission to
c. 438 Birth of Ambrosius Aurelianus, scion of the leading Romano-British family on the island.
c. 440 – 50 Period of civil war and famine in Britain, caused by ruling council's weakness and inability to deal with Pictish invasions; situation
aggravated by tensions between Pelagian/Roman factions. Vacated towns and cities in ruin. Migration of pro-Roman citizens toward west. Country beginning to be divided, geographically, along factional lines.
c. 441 Gallic Chronicle records, prematurely, that
c. 445 Vortigern comes to power in
446 Britons (probably the pro-Roman party) appeal to
Aetius, Roman governor of
c. 446 Vortigern authorizes the use of Saxon mercenaries, known as foederati, for the defense of the northern parts against barbarian attack.
To guard against further Irish incursions, Cunedda and
his sons are moved from Manau Gododdin in northern
447 Second visit of St. Germanus (this time
accompanied by Severus, Bishop of
c. 447 Britons, aroused to heroic effort, "inflicted a massacre" on their enemies, the Picts and Irish, and are left in peace, for a brief time. Could this heroic effort have been led, again, by St. Germanus?
c. 448 Death of St. Germanus in
c. 450 In the first year of Marcian and Valentinian,
Hengest arrives on shores of
c. 452 Increasing Saxon settlement in
lands, to defend against the Picts. Picts never heard from, again.
c. 453 Increasing Saxon unrest. Raids on British towns and cities becoming more frequent.
c. 456 Probably fictitious, but entirely believable, event in which Saxons massacre 300 leading British noblemen at phony "peace" conference.
Ambrosius' father, who may have been the leader of the pro-Roman faction, is probably killed either during the Saxon uprising or this massacre.
c. 457 Death of Vortigern. Vitalinus (Guitolinus) new leader of pro-Celtic Pelagian faction. Battle of Aylesford (Kent) in which Ambrosius, along
with sons of Vortigern, Vortimer and Cateyrn, defeat Hengest for the first time.
c. 458 Saxon uprising in full-swing. Hengest finally
c. 458 – 60 Full-scale migration of British
aristocrats and city-dwellers across the
c. 460 – 70 Ambrosius Aurelianus takes full control of the pro-Roman faction and British resistance effort; leads Britons in years of back-and-forth fighting with Saxons. British strategy seems to have been to allow Saxon landings and to then contain them, there.
c. 465 Arthur probably born around this time.
c. 466 Battle of Wippedesfleot, in which Saxons defeat Britons, but with great slaughter on both sides. Mutual "disgust and sorrow" results in a
respite from fighting "for a long time."
c. 466 – 73 Period of minimal Saxon activity. Refortification of ancient hillforts and construction of the Wansdyke probably takes place during
c. 469 Roman emperor, Anthemius, appeals to Britons for military help against Visigoths.
c. 470 Battle of Wallop (Hampshire) where Ambrosius
defeats Vitalinus, head of the opposing faction. Ambrosius assumes
473 Men of
477 Saxon chieftain, Aelle, lands on
(Weald). Over next nine years, Saxon coastal holdings
are gradually expanded in
c. 480 Vita Germani, the Life of St. Germanus, is written by a continental biographer, Constantius.
c. 485 – 96 Period of Arthur's "twelve battles" during which he gains reputation for invincibility.
486 Aelle and his sons overreach their normal
territory and are engaged by Britons at battle of Mercredesburne.
c. 490 Hengest dies. His son, Aesc, takes over and rules for 34 years.
c. 495 Cerdic and Cynric, his son, land somewhere on the south coast, probably near the Hampshire-Dorset border.
c. 496 Britons, under overall command of Ambrosius and
battlefield command of the "war leader" Arthur, defeat Saxons at the
c. 496 – 550 Following the victory at
peace ensues. Corrupt leadership, more civil turmoil,
public forgetfulness and individual apathy further erode Romano-British culture
over next fifty years, making
c. 500 – 50 Spread of Celtic monasticism throughout
King Arthur &
The Round Table
Merlin & The Tree of Life
Merlin the Magician
Born circa 400 CE ; Welsh: Myrddin;
Latin: Merlinus; English: Merlin.
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